Though your amp and effects have a lot to do with your sound much of it comes from the guitar you are playing, more specifically the pick ups, there are several different kinds of pickups the main two being single coils and double coils(humbuckers). Both of these pickups have their own individual sounds and strengths. single coils excel in medium to low gain blues and country, while humbuckers are better suited for higher gain music such as rock and metal. It is important to do some research on your own to decide which type of pickup is best for you.
It is also important to understand the different materials pickups are made out of when making a purchase. there are three main types of magnets that are used in pickups, alinco, ceramic, and rare earth. the first type alinco or aluminum, nickle, cobalt magnets are made from a alloy of those three metals. they where the first type of alloy magnet and their sound can be described as vintage or classic. the second type of pickup magnet is the ceramic. ceramic magnets are cheaper to make and are often used in lower quality guitars for that reason. their sound is often brighter than that of alinco pickups this is attributed to the fact that their magnetic strength is less than that of an alinco magnet
The third type of pickup the rare earth pickup sometimes referred to as a neo or super pickup, is made from rare earth metals that are 5-7 times more magnetic than alinco magnets, this type of magnet is often found in active pickups which use a nine volt battery to power them.
there are many different kinds of pickups out there, before making a purchase be sure to try them all.